2. Prepared Statement
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B.Sc. -- Physics, M.Sc. -- Physics, University of Chicago 1955, 1956.
Since 1966 -- Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory, Pittsburgh; NERVA nuclear rocket Program -- Fellow Scientist concerned primarily with radiation shielding experiments and nuclear instrumentation.
1963-1966 -- Allison Division, General Motors, Indianapolis, Indiana. Military Compact Reactor program (responsible for all shielding aspects), magnetohydrodynamics, desalination, other projects.
1959-1963 -- Aerojet General Nucleonics, near San Francisco. Development of various nuclear systems for space and terrestrial applications; Fusion propulsion for space, consultant on radiation shielding.
1956-1959 -- General Electric, Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Department, Cincinnati. Experimental and analytical aspects of radiation shielding for nuclear aircraft.
Mr. Friedman has a relatively unique background in advanced technology, having been actively involved in the development of all of the following advanced systems: nuclear aircraft, nuclear power for space, terrestrial nuclear power, nuclear rockets, fusion rockets.
Mr. Friedman has presented papers at technical society meetings and has chaired sessions at such meetings. He has written numerous classified and unclassified reports and has published articles on UFOs as well as on radiation shielding.
Mr. Friedman has made dozens of radio and TV appearances across the United States and in Canada. These include the Joe Pyne Show (Los Angeles - radio), Long John Nebel (New York City), the J. P. McCarthy Show in Detroit, all four TV stations in Pittsburgh, and others in Raleigh, Akron, Detroit, Baltimore, Toronto, Waco, Phoenix, Calgary, Albuquerque, etc.
Mr. Friedman, his wife, and three children reside at 702 Summerlea Street in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
1. To what conclusions have you come with regard to UFOs?
I have concluded that the earth is being visited by intelligently controlled vehicles whose origin is extraterrestrial. This doesn't mean I know where they come from, why they are here, or how they operate.
2. What basis do you have for these conclusions?
Eyewitness and photographic and radar reports from all over the earth by competent witnesses of definite objects whose characteristics such as maneuverability, high speed, and hovering, along with definite shape, texture, and surface features rule out terrestrial explanations.
3. Haven't most sightings been identified as conventional phenomena?
Yes, of course. However, it is only the unidentified objects in which I am interested and on which I base my conclusions. The job of science is to sort data and focus on that which is relevant to the search at hand. Fewer than 1% of Americans have hemophilia or are 7 feet tall or can run a mile in under 4 minutes -- we certainly don't dispute the reality of hemophilia, Wilt Chamberlain, or 4 minute miles.
4. Are there any good unknowns?
Yes, there are very many good unknowns which have been reported and investigated and undoubtedly very many more which have not been reported because of the "laughter curtain". In the most comprehensive detailed scientific investigation ever conducted on this subject, and reported in Reference 3 , it was found that 434 out of 2199 sightings evaluated had to be classified as Unknowns. This is 19.7% or a far higher percentage than most people have associated with UFOs. The complete breakdown is shown in Table 1. Table 2 shows the breakdown of sightings by quality. Fully one third of the 9.7% of the sightings labeled as Excellent were identified as Unknowns: one fourth of the Good sightings were labeled Unknown. All it would take to prove the reality of extraterrestrial vehicles is one good sighting not hundreds.
|TABLE I -- CATEGORIZATION OF UFO SIGHTING REPORTS1|
|1Data from reference 3.|
|TABLE 2 -- QUALITY DISTRIBUTION OF UNKNOWNS1|
|Quality||Number||Percent of total||Unknowns||Percent of group|
|1Data from reference 3.|
Absolutely not. If there was not enough information available about a sighting it was labeled "Insufficient Information" not "Unknown" -- again contrary to what many people believe about UFOs.
6. Were there any differences between the Unknowns and the knowns?
A "chi square" statistical analysis was performed comparing the Unknowns in this study to all the "knowns". It was shown that the probability that the unknowns came from the same population of sighting reports as the knowns was less than 1%. This was based on apparent color, velocity, etc. Maneuverability, one of the most distinguished characteristics of UFOs, was not included in this statistical analysis.
7. Weren't most sightings of very short duration, say less than a minute?
The average duration of the sightings labeled as "Unknown" was greater than that for the knowns. More than 70% of the unknowns were under observation for more than 1 minute and more than 45% for more than 5 minutes.
8. Isn't it true that UFOs have never been sighted on radar?
No, it is not, Ref. 3 specifically mentions radar unknowns. In Ref. 4 , Edward Ruppelt, former head of the official UFO investigative effort, makes specific mention of not only "Unknowns" observed on radar but of combined visual and radar "Unknowns". Hynek  also mention radar and visual sightings.
9. Where can I get more information about "Unknowns" ?
10. Why haven't the worldwide Smithsonian Network of Satellite Tracking cameras picked up "Unknowns"?
The former head of the film evaluation group concerned with the Smithsonian sky watch said  that the purpose of the search was to get data on satellite orbits. If a light source on the film could be shown not to be a satellite then no further measurements were made. 10% to 15% of the plates showed anomalous light sources which were not a satellite but were not otherwise identified.
11. How about the other space surveillance radar installations?
Baker in Ref. 11 deals with this question in detail. In summary, the systems are set up to reject signals which refer to anything other than the objects of interest -- typically ballistic missiles coming from certain directions.
Not at all. This argument ("It's Impossible") is used when what should really be said is we don't know how to duplicate these maneuvers. Piston aircraft can't fly faster than the speed of sound and a conventional dynamite bomb couldn't have wrecked Hiroshima and a vacuum tube circuit can't fit on the head of a pin but surely we don't say that supersonic flight, atom bombs and microcircuits violate the laws of nature or physics. Present aircraft can't duplicate UFO maneuvers; no laws of physics have been violated by UFOs.
13. Haven't astronomers proved that trips to other stars are impossible?
Again, the answer is no. The studies  that conclude that trips to other stars are impossible are based upon false or unnecessary assumptions such as, assuming, that the flight be at orbital velocity . The one comprehensive study of interstellar travel conducted by a JPL group actually concerned with space hardware  concluded that with present technology trips to nearby stars are feasible with round trip times being shorter than a man's lifetime and without violating the laws of physics. They assumed that staged vehicles would be used having either fission or fusion propulsion systems.
14. Are fission and fusion propulsion systems actually being developed?
Both fission and fusion propulsion systems for space travel are under development. I have worked on both. The NERVA program has successfully tested a number of nuclear rocket reactors suitable for use in flight throughout the solar system. Flight rated systems offering substantial advantages over chemical propulsion systems could be ready in less than a decade if the current program at Aerojet General, Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is supported. References  and  are good reviews of the nuclear rocket program. The fusion work is not nearly as far along but has been productive at Aerojet General Nucleonics, San Ramon, California. An older review of some of the aspects of this program is given in Ref. 17.
15. Are these the only possibilities?
Not at all. This is one of the major flaws in the "non-believers" arguments; they presume that our technology is the ultimate -- a presumption made by each generation of scientists in the last 75 years and proved wrong by the next generation of engineers and applied scientists. If there is one thing to be learned from the history of science it is that there will be new and unpredictable discoveries comparable with, say, relatively, nuclear energy, the laser, solid state physics, high field superconductivity, etc. It is generally accepted that there are civilizations elsewhere which are much more advanced than are we. Look what technological progress we have made in the last 100 years. Who can guess what we will accomplish in the next thousand years -- or what others have accomplished in the thousand or million or billion year start they may have on us. We still don't know about gravity, for example, no less anti-gravity.
16. Could UFOs be coming here from our own solar system?
They certainly could. We have no data from any other body in the solar system which definitely rules out the existence of advanced civilizations. We frequently forget that the resolution of present photographs of the other planetary bodies is extremely poor. As a matter of fact, there does seem to be a direct correlation between the number of sighting reports per unit time and the closeness of Mars to the earth. Both have periodicities of about 26 months.  We make certain space shots at "favorable times". The reverse may also be true but without the restrictions on payload and trajectory placed upon us by our crude, inefficient, space propulsion systems which no thoughtful engineer considers the ultimate.
17. Didn't the Mariner IV pictures prove there isn't any life on Mars?
The Mariner pictures didn't provide proof of life on Mars but they certainly didn't rule it out and were not intended to. Studies  of 10,000 pictures of earth taken from orbit with cameras having resolving power equivalent to those on Mariner IV provided only one picture which could be taken to indicate that there is life on the planet called earth.
18. Isn't it true that life as we know it cannot exist on any other body in the solar system?
This statement, though repeated many times, is quite obviously untrue. Consider for a moment the fact that we intend to send men to the moon and by the end of the century to Mars. We expect these men to stay for a while and to return despite the fact that Mars and the moon both supposedly aren't fit for life as we know it. One characteristic of an advanced technological civilization is the ability to provide suitable conditions for life almost anywhere; including under the
19. If we are being visited why haven't they landed?
The fact of the matter is that there are many reports of landings. The comprehensive study by scientist J. Vallee  reviews 200 landings which occurred in 1954 alone; many of them with multiple witnesses giving reports of humanoids in addition to strange craft either on or just above the ground. Most scientists have unfortunately not examined this data since it was published in a UFO Journal and laughter comes easier than facing up to the evidence.
20. Has the attitude of the scientific Journals and professional community been changing?
There has been a quiet yet enormous change in the attitude of the technological community. I say technological to include the applied scientists and engineers who are far more responsible for the progress of the last 30 years than the academic scientists who are prone to tell us all that is impossible. Examples of the change include the publication of articles by Science       Astronautics and Aeronautics,  the Journal of the Astronautical Sciences  the American Engineer    Industrial Research,  Scientific Research   Aviation Week and Space Technology.   In addition, numerous pro-UFO talks have been presented to local and national meetings of professional groups (see Appendix 1 and Ref.  ,  and the American Association for the Advancement of Science is planning a UFO seminar for a national meeting. The AIAA has even set up a UFO Committee.
21. Have there really been any electromagnetic effects associated with UFO sightings?
Indeed such reports are numerous, see for example Ref. 38 which includes stopping of car engines and headlights, and interference with radio and TV reception, magnetic speedometers, and watches.
22. Could these conceivably be related to a propulsion scheme?
There is an enormous amount of work available concerned with magnetoaerodynamics. I received a NASA bibliography with more than 3000 references. Ref. 39 contains abstracts of more than 800 publications dealing with interactions between vehicles and plasmas. Much of this work is classified because ICBM nose cones are surrounded by plasmas. In any event, there is a body of technology which I have studied and which leads me to believe  that an entirely new approach to high speed air and space propulsion could be developed using the interactions between magnetic and electric fields with electrically conducting fluids adjacent to the vehicles to produce thrust or lift and reduce or eliminate such other hypersonic flight problems as drag, sonic boom, heating, etc. These notions are based [on] existing technology such as that included in Ref. 40 through 49 though one would expect that a considerable development effort would be required.
23. Have any electromagnetic propulsion systems been operated?
So far as I know no airborne system has been operated which depended on electromagnetic forces for propulsion. At Northwestern, turning on a magnet inside a simulated re-entry vehicle with a plasma around it resulted in a change in the color of the plasma and its location relative to the vehicle. However, an electromagnetic submarine has actually been built and successfully tested. It is described in some detail in References 50-52
24. Can an EM submarine really be related to a UFO?
Dr. Way's electromagnetic submarine which, incidentally, is silent and would be quite difficult to detect at a distance, is directly analogous to the type of airborne craft I envision except that the shape of the aircraft would most likely be lenticular and the electrically conducting seawater would be replaced with an electrically conducting plasma of ionized air.
25. Would lenticular vehicles fly?
I certainly think so. We seem to believe that airplanes have the only possible shape probably because the Wright brothers plane had the same outline which in turn was like that of birds. As pointed out by Chatham in Ref. 53 , flight is still only a byproduct of high forward velocity leading to the need for long runways and high speed landings and takeoff. Present airplanes are quite obviously inefficient in terms of fuel consumption, payload fraction, and volume of air and airport space per passenger. After all the SST will only carry a few hundred passengers though it will occupy the space of a football field capable of holding at least ten times as many people. Fuel weight is greater than payload weight and neither
26. Have any members of your audience seen any UFOs?
I have taken to asking whether any members of my audiences have seen what they would call a UFO. Typically 3-10% are willing to raise their hands and usually there are others who approach me privately. These data, though limited, tend to support the Gallup Poll of 1966 which revealed that 5 million adult Americans claimed to have observed a UFO. Interestingly enough the official files contain fewer than 12,000 reports.
27. Were these sightings by your audience reported to investigative bodies?
In general, no. At Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory 20 of the 600 listeners indicated that they had seen something odd but only one had reported what he had seen.
28. Is there some way to get more data about UFOs besides reading reports?
There are several approaches that should be taken.
(a) Lift the "laughter curtain" so that more observers are willing to report what they see and more scientists will become involved.
(b) Using existing technology establish instrumented investigative teams and automated observation instrumentation such as that recommended by Dr. Baker before the Committee on Science and Astronautics.
(c) A world wide communication and study effort should be begun.
(d) A very large survey should be conducted to determine the characteristics of the objects that have been observed. The most comprehensive picture we have of ball lightning resulted from carefully conducted surveys by McNally  and Rayle. . UFOs in my opinion are definitely not ball lightning or other natural plasmas but are analogous to ball lightning and earthquakes in that their appearance cannot be predicted and they cannot be reproduced in the lab or in the field but they have been observed.
29. Are there any other references of interest to scientists?
Yes, References [56-62].
30. Haven't you biased your comments by not discussing at any length the work of Marcowitz, Menzel, and Klass?
The paper by Marcowitz  and the books by Menzel   and Klass  will undoubtedly be read by scientists of the 21st century as "classics" illustrating a non-scientific approach to UFOs by people who, for whatever reason, would not examine the data relevant to UFOs or advanced technology. Marcowitz was totally wrong about fission and fusion propulsion systems, didn't even consider electromagnetic propulsion, and was obviously unaware of current technology and the data such as I mentioned earlier about UFOs. McDonald  has discussed Menzel's approach in detail, but let me also point out that in Ref. 64, fewer than 30 sightings ever listed as "unknowns" were discussed and no mention was made of the 434 "Unknowns" of Ref. 3 or even the 71 Excellent Unknowns of this study. I agree with Klass on only one item, many people have observed glowing plasmas; but I believe they were adjacent to vehicles rather than ball lightning or corona discharge. He didn't even consider this possibility despite all his talk about plasmas and despite the enormous amount of plasma-vehicle data which is available. In summary, I feel that these three gentlemen have made strong attempts to make the data fit their hypotheses rather than trying to do the much more difficult job of creating hypotheses which fit the data.
Engineering Society of Detroit
Engineering Society of Baltimore
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
Local sections of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Wichita, Kansas; Cumberland, Maryland; Waco, Texas; San Antonio, Texas; Raleigh, North Carolina; New York, New York.
Local sections of the Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Wilmington, Delaware; Salisbury, Maryland; New London, Connecticut.
Professional Engineers of Western Pennsylvania.
American Nuclear Society in Pittsburgh and Las Vegas, Nevada.
Pittsburgh Chemists Club.
Computer Simulation Council of Western Pennsylvania.
Dravo Corporation Engineers Club, Pittsburgh.
Society of American Military Engineers.
Universal Cyclops Corporation Engineers Meeting.
22nd Annual Frequency Control Symposium.
University of Texas.
Carnegie Mellon University.
University of Illinois, Chicago.
West Virginia University.
|U.S. PATENTS FOR CIRCULAR AIRCRAFT|
|3,067,967||I.R. Barr||Flying machine||Dec. 11, 1962|
|2,772,968||J.C. Fischer, Jr||Circular aircraft and control system therefor||Nov. 27, 1956|
|2,947,496||A.L. Leggett||Jet-propelled aircraft||Aug. 2, 1960|
|2,801,058||C.P. Lent||Saucer-shaped aircraft||July 30, 1957|
|2,876,964||H.F. Streib||Circular wing aircraft||Mar. 10, 1959|
|2,997,013||W.A. Rice||Propulsion system||Aug. 22, 1961|
|3,124,323||J.C.M. Frost||Aircraft propulsion and control||Mar. 10, 1964|
|2,876,965||H.P. Streib||Circular wing aircraft with universally tiltable ducted powerplant||Mar. 10, 1959|
|2,939,648||H. Fleissner||Rotating jet aircraft with lifting disk wing and centrifuging tanks||June 7, 1960|
|3,103,324||N.C. Price||High velocity, high altitude VTOL aircraft||Sept 10, 1963|
The next simplest response is: "We are certainly not alone in the Universe and surely some civilizations are more advanced than ours, but interstellar travel is not feasible because of the vast distances between such civilizations and the great quantity of energy and time required for the trip." These critics ignore our lack of data on intercivilization distances the possibility of unknown (to us) flight technology, and studies in this area.  Another response is that the reported activity of UFOs is not rational since, if "they" were advanced enough to get here, they would surely try to communicate with us.
These responses avoid coming to grips with the reported data. Those
interested in data -- and there is plenty of it
-- are advised
to consult the References and derive a hypothesis other than
extraterrestrial vehicles to fit the facts, rather than to try to
make the facts fit the hypothesis that "we are not being visited
because -- " ( in 25 words or less ).
A particularly interesting aspect of the data from all over the world
is that electromagnetic effects are frequently observed in
association with the presence of UFOs, along with the fact that many
observations suggest that what is being observed is a "vehicle"
having a plasma region adjacent toil -- "vehicle" because of its
metal-like surface, large size, maneuvers indicating intelligent
control, well-defined shape, surface features such as "port holes,
antenna, landing gears," lights, etc.; and plasma because of bright
glows rather than color, changes in the color of the glow associated
with changes in velocity, luminous boundary layers, and appearance on
film of regions not seen by the naked eye. The EM effects include
interference with the operation of automobile engines, radios, and
headlights; interference with the operation of radio and TV sets,
compasses, magnetic speedometers, power systems; residual magnetism
in metal objects, watches, etc.
During the past decade a vast amount of terrestrial technology, much
of it classified, has been developed concerning the interactions of
airborne vehicles and
A particularly interesting aspect of the data from all over the world is that electromagnetic effects are frequently observed in association with the presence of UFOs, along with the fact that many observations suggest that what is being observed is a "vehicle" having a plasma region adjacent toil -- "vehicle" because of its metal-like surface, large size, maneuvers indicating intelligent control, well-defined shape, surface features such as "port holes, antenna, landing gears," lights, etc.; and plasma because of bright glows rather than color, changes in the color of the glow associated with changes in velocity, luminous boundary layers, and appearance on film of regions not seen by the naked eye. The EM effects include interference with the operation of automobile engines, radios, and headlights; interference with the operation of radio and TV sets, compasses, magnetic speedometers, power systems; residual magnetism in metal objects, watches, etc. 
During the past decade a vast amount of terrestrial technology, much of it classified, has been developed concerning the interactions of airborne vehicles and
A review of this literature and an extrapolation of existing technology suggest that with considerable effort an entirely new EM approach to hypersonic flight might be developed which, in many respects, could duplicate UFO characteristics. In turn, this leads to the notion that observed UFO behavior is not so unreasonable as might at first appear to be the case. The measurement of EM parameters of UFOs could well provide information on both UFO characteristics and new propulsion.
S. T. Friedman Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory
Ed. -- For additional comments on UFOs see the following AIA references:
"The Wheel in the Middle of the Air," Solomon Golomb, Sounding Board, August 1966, p. 16 ... Letters, Nov. 1966, p. 6, George Earley and Brent L. Marsh on Saucer Doctrine.
"UFOs -- Extraterrestrial Probes?" by James E, McDonald, Sounding Board, Aug. 1967, p. 9.
Munday Jr., John C., "On the UFOs," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Dec. 1967.
Also see December 8, 1967, issue of Science, No. 3806, pp. 1265 and 1266. Letters to Ed.