Guided Missiles and UFOs:

A Tangle of Fear - 1937-53 - Part Two

By Joel Carpenter

21 Jul 46 - NYTimes: "Air Forces To Show JD-2 Rocket Bomb - The Army's new JD-2 rocket bomb will be placed on exhibition Thursday [25 Jul] when the Army Air Forces mobile caravan arrives in the city for a two-day showing of equipment. The ten vehicles comprising the display will be parked on the Avenue of the Americas near Forty-Third Street. The JD-2, called by the Army America's answer to the German V-2 bomb, weighs 2,000 pounds [sic], carries 1,000 pounds of explosives and has a range of 400 miles. It is fired from a launching platform and thereafter is maintained in flight by a jet engine..." (Actually the missile was the JB-2, the Republic/Willys-Overland V-1 copy)

USAAF B-17 bomber carries two Republic JB-2 cruise missiles in air-launch test

22 Jul 46 - British legation Helsinki cables Foreign Office details of 'strange lights in the sky' in Finland. In Stockholm, Sqdn Ldr Heath complains in cable to FO about slow speed of Swedish investigation of Kolmjarv incident: "It must be appreciated that Swedish methods of operation are extremely slow and probably unproductive...We have not obtained an acceptable assessment of size, description or speed. We are doing everything possible to foster attention to accurate details." Heath reports that Swedes willing to accept underwater search equipment. (Clarke and Roberts)

sketch of bottom profile of Lake Kolmjarv, produced by crash investigators

22 July 46 - British memo: "GUARD [CYPHER] 22 Jul 1946 FROM STOCKHOLM TO FOREIGN OFFICE .... IMPORTANT Following for Air Ministry D of I(R) from Air Attache telegram No. A.X.170 July 19th TOP SECRET GUARD Following is position on missiles over Sweden as seen by Heath and Malone after discussion at Swedish Air Ministry to-day. 1. Too many missiles have been observed and described to allow of explanation as meteorites. Full list of observations being sent separately. 2. Sole remains so far recovered in Sweden are pieces no longer than an egg of porous yellow combustible material, porous black carboniferous material, porous grey ash or slag material and black slate like material. Representative samples of each are being sent separately. 3. Meagre remains so far recovered permit no definite conclusions by Swedes or ourselves. 4. All investigations now co-ordinated by Kjellson of Swedish Air Ministry. Both he and we believe that present evidence suggests athodyd propulsion with yellow and black materials being used as main fuel or to maintain combustion. Kjellson does not exclude electronic propulsion as outlined by Austrian deserter Peters during the war or even atomic propulsion. We see no reason for these latter suggestions. 5. Geig[grp.undec.? er] counter was requested to ask the Swedes to test for radioactivity at point of incident. They will have portable Geiger counter weighing 12 kilogrammes so will only require one from us if ours is lighter and more easily handled.... " (PRO files)

Ghost rocket tracks plotted on 22 July by Swedish AMES 66 Mk III radar (SCR-615)

23 Jul 46 - Central Intelligence Group produces its first piece of "strategic and national policy" intelligence, ORE-1, which analyzes Soviet foreign and military policy.

23 Jul 46 - Commerce Secretary Henry Wallace (frm FDR VP) twelve-page letter to Truman. "Forcefully advocating a new approach to the Soviet Union, Wallace charged, among other things, that certain unnamed members of the U.S. military command advocated a 'preventive war' before Russia had time to develop an atom bomb." The letter was obtained by Drew Pearson in September after Wallace's Madison Square Garden speech and was released by the White House. (McCullough, Truman) [See 12 Sept 46]

23 Jul 46 - NYTimes: "Atomic Power Use Studied For Planes" - "Special to the New York Times - Washington, July 22 - A research program to ascertain how atomic energy can be used for airplanes is being worked out by the Army Air Forces and aircraft engine companies, the War Department announced tonight. A primary contract to supervise the work with other companies has been awarded to the Fairchild Engine and Airplane Company of New York. Details were not revealed, Maj. Gen. Curtis Le May, Deputy Chief of Air Staff for Research and Development, saying that to do so would violate security regulations. General Le May, who is directing the program, said no final solution had been discovered, and that no estimated date could be given for completion of the project....The basic work on coordinating research in the application of atomic energy to aircraft propulsion will probably be done at the Farmingdale plant of the Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp. J. Carlton Ward Jr., president of Fairchild, who has just returned from the Bikini tests, indicated that the company's work would be much like that of Monsanto Chemical at East St. Louis in coordinating work on application of atomic energy to other power sources."

23 July 46 - Ghost Rocket sighted near Lillhärdal (Härjedalen) by Ärnst Olofsson


25 Jul 46 - Crossroads Baker, Bikini - the fifth US nuclear detonation - shallow underwater burst of Fat Man bomb destroys or damages most ships in anchored test fleet and causes massive radiological contamination of area.

25 Jul 46 - NYTimes: American proposals at UN for establishment of semi-autonomous international atomic control agency were flatly rejected yesterday by Andrei Gromyko. Gromyko insist that UN Security Council must retain full power to handle atomic control and warned that any attempt to undermine the great powers' veto would be 'dangerous and maybe fatal.'

Stalin, Truman and Gromyko

25 Jul 46 - Morgon-Tidningen: Swedish military requests public assistance with reports, which are to be sent to "Air Defense Division, Defense Staff, Stockholm 90....It is possible that the flying bombs which are seen crossing Sweden both with a western direction and in a directly opposite direction, are taking a round trip over the country in order then to return to their place of origin...that they are meteors in every case is a theory which has been rejected without further ado by the defense staff."

27 Jul 46 - British Air Attache Henderson Stockholm telegram to Foreign Office - "I have been asked by the Swedish Air Staff to take all possible measures to prevent the Americans finding out about Swedish full cooperation with us in investigating mysterious missiles. Italian Air Attache has been making enquiries in Swedish Air and General Staffs and has been given evasive replies. Leakage of information about our co-operation would seriously embarrass Swedish authorities." (Clarke and Roberts)

29 Jul 46 - London Daily Telegraph reports that Norway has followed Sweden's lead and is now censoring reports on GR activity

29 Jul 46 - four minute radar plot of GR NW of Uppsala at 3800 m altitude

29 Jul 46 - NY Times, p.1 top center - "Rockets to Climb 130 Miles Planned by Army Air Forces - Will Air Study of Atmosphere - 90-mile Missile to Be Set Off Next Month in New Mexico - 500-Mile Rise Projected" By the Associated Press. Washington, July 28 - Several score giant rockets, including rockets designed to go substantially higher than the Nazi V-2's, are to be built for the Army Air Forces to find out what it is like in the upper atmosphere, officials disclosed today. Contracts are planned to have one or more aircraft manufacturers build 100 rockets capable of rising from less than twenty miles to more than 130 miles. The cost is estimated at about $2,000,000 and some of the rockets are expected to be ready for firing by the fall of next year. These rockets, research officals said, were strictly for the scientific purpose of carrying instruments to collect data in such fields as cosmic rays, atmospheric pressure and temperatures. They are to serve as pioneers for the long-range guided missiles and "space vehicles" which Maj. Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, the Air Forces research director, has predicted as likely developments of the next few years. Congress included the needed funds in the $184,000,000 earmarked for Air Forces research and development in the War Department's current appropriations. As a further stage in the effort to explore the ionosphere there is proposed a whole family of experimental guided missiles, with one member capable of reaching 500 miles above the earth with a 500-pound load. Studies are being pressed vigorously at current practicable levels by these measures: 1. Three B-29 bombers are being modified for high-altitude flights in conjunction with the Navy. 2. A V-2 to be fired probably Aug. 22 at the Army Ordnance ..."

2 Aug 46 - Yugoslavs in Paris reject Big Four Trieste solution

3 Aug 46 - (TS) Foreign Office memo - British Air Ministry has decided to dispatch party of radar experts to Sweden. Officially as training adjunct to Vampire fighters which had recently been sold to Sweden, but "strictly for your own information the radar sets installed will be used to assist Swedes to obtain information regarding recent projectiles seen over Sweden." (Clarke and Roberts)

4 Aug 46 - Chicago Tribune reports that British and US intelligence services believed the Russians had reopened Peenemünde in spite of Soviet assertions that it was in ruins. Speculated that work on improved V-2s was being rushed to counter the US advantage as sole nuclear power.

9 Aug 46 - US C-47 transport a/c forced down in Yugoslavia.

9 Aug 46 - ("TS PIE") War Dept Incoming Classified Msg From: US Delegation ACC Budapest sgd Weems - To: War Dept for WDGID, USFET G-2; USFA G-2; MTOUSA G-2; ACC Rumania; MA Moscow (War Pls pass to all): From Hungarian source B-3, Official of Hungarian Institute of Technology recently recognized in the Institute a former Germany weapons expert who had been a colleague of his at Vienna Arsenal during World War I. The German was from Koenigsberg and was wearing Russian Major's uniform. He revealed to said official that he and two other German experts were recently brought to Hungary to test the Hungarian natural gases for use as combustibles in rocket weapons. The three men were testing gas in that Institute taken from various Hungarian locations. According to source they reached conclusion that the gas found in the vicinity of Bugyi 20 miles south of Budapest was the best so far found to power the rockets with which the Russians are experimenting. The German is said to have told his old colleague that extensive experiments are being carried on by the Russians with radio guided rockets, which the Russians refer to as V-3 and V-4. Result so far obtained he said carry the rockets to distance of over 700 miles and return. Research in Hungary and other places is aimed at developing more effective fuel for rocket weapons. All efforts being made to learn name of Germans. End. Note: Has been relayed ACTION: Gen Chamberlain INFO: Gen Spaatz, Gen Norstad, Gen Aurand, CSA

9 Aug 46 - "Major General Aurand, General Eisenhower's expert on rockets, called a news conference in Washington to put to rest any lingering rumors of sharp differences of opinion within the War Department over research and development concerning America's guided missile program. Evidently the news conference was to shore up public morale at home and to restore any lost confidence in America's technical superiority abroad. General Aurand claimed that jurisdictional disputes between the different services had been taken too seriously by everyone concerned and that a hearing would be held soon to iron out any minor disagreements that still existed and to lay down some needed formal guidelines. Apparently with the 'mysterious demonstrations' over the Baltic regions in mind, Army Air Force General Curtis LeMay then replaced General Aurand at the microphone and boasted to the news reporters that Uncle Sam would soon produce an 'air rocket' that would be capable of zooming to 100,000 feet and would be equipped with an 'anti-meteor gun.' It was strange talk for a general who was a long way from having a reliable jet fighter of much more modest capabilities. The press then asked General Aurand if American and British research was being coordinated concerning missiles; the question apparently touched a sensitive area, for he replied curtly: 'I cannot answer you that.'" (cited in Gross, Mystery of the Ghost Rockets, 1974 ed)

11 Aug 46 - Astronomer Bertil Lindblad of Stockholm University Observatory, sights object in Gotland


11 Aug 46 - FOA report on GRs includes this sketch


13 Aug 46 - Bombay, India The Hindu (Reuters): "Experts in the anti-aircraft departments of the Swedish Army are sifting many reports of supposed rocket projectiles fired over Southern and Central Sweden. One theory which has been put forward is that Russian technicians are experimenting with new weapons in the Baltic provinces or elsewhere. All reports of the rockets speak of their coming from the southeast. The rockets have a triangular nose and are black, travel at a high rate of speed and whine as they pass through the air. Some have been reported to disintegrate and fall to earth in small fragments, but when the fragments were analyzed in the laboratory they were found to be common slag."

14 Aug 46 - NYTimes report: "Under-Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, said today he personally was very much interested in reports of rockets flying over Sweden but that the Swedes had not sought any American advice on the subject."

- Dean Acheson

14 Aug 46 - Swedish AF Lt and flt observer aboard B 18 a/c on training flt near Vasteras. Rocket-like object appeared three or four miles away. "It was not an airplane. It was definitely a cigar - or disc seen from its side. When I tried to increase my speed it just flew away. I couldn't get any closer." GR committee investigates and cannot solve.

15 Aug 46 - NYTimes: "SWEDES FIND ROCKET CLUE - Lettered Metal Fragment Is Now Under Close Study" - "Stockholm, Sweden, Aug 14 (U.P.) - Swedish Army investigators have recovered a fragment of metal containing imprinted letters that may solve the mystery of rockets that have been flashing over Sweden and other Scandanavian countries since last May, it was announced today. The fragment was reported to be a 2.75-inch section of metal. It has been placed in the hands of the Defense Research Institute for investigation. Three additional rockets were reported sighted in southern Sweden last night, flying silently in a southwesterly direction at a high altitude. These reports said the rockets, bright as stars, passed overhead at intervals of five minutes. Premier Per Albin Hansson announced today that the Swedish Government has not yet made any representations to any foreign Government in connection with the rockets, not having yet defined their nature and origin."

- Per Albin Hansson

16 Aug 46 - (TS) War Dept incoming msg fm US MA London - “British War Office representative and Dr Molina [sic] are on TDY in this office from California Institute of Technology, discredit report of use of natural gas for propulsion of rocket missiles. It has no advantage known to the British over orthodox rocket fuels....” (Frank Malina, von Karman GALCIT rocket group expert, second director Jet Propulsion Laboratory)
(See 22-29 Sept 46).

Malina had seen the parts of the Swedish V-2 that had been sent to England by the "Big Ben" project in mid 1944.

My 1944 Mission to Europe

JPL was visited in the summer of 1944 by Colonel F.F. Reed, called by his friends "Froggy". He was Assistant Military Attache, Ordnance Department, in London. It was decided that I should return his visit by going to Britain to study rocket and ramjet engine research underway, to obtain first-hand experience of being in the target area of the V-1s and V-2s, and to inspect at Farnborough, England, the parts of the V-2 that had been obtained from the one that had strayed off course and landed in Sweden in early 1944. Since my trip included an inspection of German V-1 launching sites and other kinds of installations in northern France (Pas de Calais region), which had been liberated in August 1944, I was given the rank of Colonel (assimilated rank, in case of capture). Upon the urging of Reed, I designed and had a tailor make a shoulder patch with a rocket on it -perhaps the first US military insignia signifying rocket missiles.

There are 82 names of engineers and scientists in the UK on the list of those with whom I discussed various aspects of my mission. Among them were Sir Alwyn D. Crow, Controller of Projectile Development, London; W. Blackman, Chief Superintendent, Projectile Development Center, Aberporth Wales; J.E. Lennard-Jones, Chief Superintendent , Armament Research Department, Fort Halstead; R.F. Fraser, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London; S. Goldstein, Cambridge University; Thomas Petroleum Warfare Department, Langhurst; Hankins and Ralph, respectively Superintendent of the Engineering Divison and Superintendent of the Aerodynamics Division of the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington; Perring, Roayl Aeronautical Establishment, Farnborouhg, Capt. A. Richards Superintendent of Torpedo Exp. and Dev. , Geenoch, Scotland; I. Lubbock, Asiatic Petroleum Co. B. Lockspeiser, Director of Scientific Research, Ministry of Aircraft Productions; Air Commodore F. Whittle, Power Jets, Ltd. Whetstone; Smith, Metropolitan-Vickers Ltd., Manchester. These discussions were quite open on both sides, although I knew that some information was held back, just as I held back on some of our plans and developments. Compared to American research practice, the extent of theoretical analysis and the length of debate on pros and cons before a decision was made to build something particularly struck me. 

This difference in approach was in large part due to the much more limited financial and manpower resources available in wartime Britain. I realize that our PRIVATE F fiasco (to be described later) might well have been avoided if a more thorough theoretical analysis had been made of an unguided winged missile.

The main interest in Britain in 1944 was centered on the improvement, under the dominating personality of Sir Alwyn Crow, of an anti-aircraft rocket missile. Under his leadership, unguided anti-aircraft ballistite UP rockets (UP for Unrotated Projectile) were developed and used in the Battle of Britain in 1941. Some said that UPs should have been called "misguided missiles", for, as Charles C. Lauritson, who watched them perform in London that year is quoted to have said: "I dont think they ever shot down a bomber" (p. 108).  They did make a lot of noise, which perhaps gave a psychological lift to the people; By the time I arrived in London in October 1944, only a few V-1s were still arriving during the night, launched from aircraft over the North Sea because land launching sites on the other side of the English Channel had been captured by the Allies. V-2s bombarded London from bases off the coast of Holland. One shook up a conference I was attending at Fort Halstead, near London.

My first experience of this sort left me rather disturbed but not my colleagues , who continued the meeting as though nothing had happened. Information was available on the V-2 and on German engines using LOX and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The British were of the view that the nitric-acid-aniline family of propellents was less suitable than hydrogen peroxide and, hopefully, nitromethane. We did not go overboard on either of these latter chemicals as they did. (By 1944, we had good reasons to doubt the great expectations of John W. Parsons and Fritz Zwicky for nitromethane as a monopropellent; It was tested extensively both at JPL and at Aerojet and, as far as I know, nitromethane was finally given up as a rocket propellent because it is sensitive to shock and it is difficult to use a s a rocket motor coolant).

Test facilities for liquid propellent engines were still in a very primitive state in Britain and work was just getting underway on composite solid propellents and on long duration engines using them. There was much interest in the possibilities of the ramjet engine, mainly because of claims made for it in Germany, especially by Eugen Sänger. The British knew considerably more that we did at JPL of the problems to be solved to make a ramjet a practical device . Ramjet studies were being carried out in England at Power Jets, Ltd. Under Lloyd and Constant; Here , also, Air Comodore Frank Whittle was continuing his development of turbojet engines and he and I compared experiences on the vicissitudes of those who try to get unorthodox ideas accepted.

I inspected the parts of the V-2 brought from Sweden at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough. Design elements of the engine and the guidance system were than still not completely understood The latter was especially of interest to us at JPL, where we were just beginning to confront the problems of missile guidance and control.

Between 16 and 26 November 1944 I visited France with Captain C.E. Martinson, who had been assigned by Reed to look after me during my mission. We inspected V-1 launching sites at Wizerne, Montreuil and Siracourt. Bombing from aircraft had produced only minor damage to the sites, whereas nearby villages were in shambles. At Mimoyecques and Watten were very large constructions whose purpose up that time no experts could make out. While crossing the Atlantic on my return journey, during the second week of December, the many hours gave me a chance to think over the implications of all I had observed on my tour. When I had departed from JPL in October, plans were far advanced for testing the first ORDCIT solid propellent missile, the PRIVATE A, for the design of a winged version, the PRIVATE F, and for the liquid propellent CORPORAL. Turning over the many bits of information stored in my mind, I clearly realized that the first objective our rocket research group had set for itself in 1936 was within reach a sounding rocket . We now had reliable solid and liquid propellent engines around which to build it. The next step was to sell the idea to the Ordnance Department.

I visited Trichel and his staff during a stop-over in Washington D.C. to report on my mission, before proceeding on to Pasadena. When I completed my report, I presented my wish to have JPL design, construct and test a sounding rocket. I explained that it should be possible to carry out the program rapidly; that modest requirements should be set (to lift a 25 lb. payload of 100,000ft.); that the rocket with a liquid-propellent engine could be considered as a small-scale test version of the CORPORAL; that experience would be gained with launching techniques and that it might be considered as a first step in the development of a guided anti-aircraft missile.

The proposal immediately raised a favorable response. The Signal Corps was contacted to establish meteorological payload requirements for the rocket that would meet its needs . By 16 January 1945, the study of the proposed sounding rocket requested from JPL, by the Ordnance Department was completed by Homer J. Stewart and me.......

The following summer I returned to London to undertake, starting on 7 July 1946, a second mission in Europe for the Army Ordnance Department in the office of Colonel Reed, Assistant Military Attache. My mission was much broader than it had been in 1944, for I also was asked to report on matters related to science and technology outside the domains of rocket propulsion and missile design. I remained in Europe until December 1946 and during this time I saw von Karman several times and discussed with him aspects of the post-war situation, especially as they would affect his and my plans for the future.

16 Aug 46 - USAAF Intel rept reveals that US knew about British GR investigations. []

16 Aug 46 - (TOP SECRET) From: US Naval Attache at Stockholm, Sweden Date: 16 August, 1946 Reference: MA Stockholm's Top Secret Report R334-46 of 13 August 1946 Subject: SWEDEN Guided Missiles Rocket Sightings Over Sweden

No tangible evidence to date as to nature or origin of rockets reported over Sweden, although Swedish Defense Staff insists that they are rockets. Swedish press and public aroused, but Swedish Air Force officers still on summer leave, aircraft warning not mobilized, and no attempts made to intercept missiles with jet fighters; improbable that rockets, if any, are Russian or British, but possible that they are Swedish. Swedish defense staff evasive and their communiques contradictory and confusing. Sweden may be experimenting with rockets, but is concealing the fact and encouraging belief that rockets of foreign origin are being launched over Sweden, with civilian observers reporting jet fighters, contrails and meteors as rockets.

1.   This report is an attempt to correlate various reports on the recently reported sightings of light phenomena or rockets over Sweden and, in the absence of any tangible evidence, to formulate a hypothesis as to their nature and origin.

2.   To date no US military or naval personnel in Sweden have seen any fragments, photographs, radar tracks, points of impact, or other evidence of any kind to prove that guided missiles have actually been seen over Swedish territory.

3.   On 12 August the reporting officer asked three Swedish Air Force officers what they thought of the reported sightings. They answered that they believed definitely that these were rockets. On 13 August the reporting officer and the Assistant US Military Attache were permitted to talk to three Swedish Air Force officers from the Defense Staff, who stated in answer to direct questions that while they had no definite evidence to back their belief, they believed that the reported phenomena were rockets. This may therefore be accepted as the official Swedish military expression as to the nature of the reported phenomena.

4.   Although sightings of brilliant light phenomena over Stockholm on 11 August created a great furore in the Swedish press and considerable concern among the Swedish public, the Swedish Air Force has not called back its officers from their summer leave, and the Swedish aircraft warning net has not been mobilized to spot reported missiles. Considering the fact that hundreds of reports from all over the country have described cigar-shaped missiles with fiery tails at altitudes low enough for interception by Swedish jet-propelled aircraft, this apparently unconcern and lack of sustained energy on the part of the military organization is peculiar.

Case 1. Rockets of Russian Origin

5. The Russians might be launching rockets over Sweden in order to pressurize [sic] the Swedes in connection with the proposed Russian-Swedish trade agreement, or to frighten them away from any consideration of joining a Western Bloc. Another motive would be the demonstration of a new weapon to answer our atomic bomb demonstrations. A lesser consideration would be the testing of rockets over a neutral country, as Germany did with the V-2 rockets. Arguments against this theory are that the reported ranges (1000 km) are far in excess of those for any known rocket to date for the flat trajectories described (two or three hundred meters for a cigar-shaped rocket thirty feet long over central Sweden.) This would indicate a new propellant and a far more efficient control system than the best German rockets; it is therefore doubtful that Russia would risk giving away such a secret by launching it over Sweden at altitudes low enough for it to be shot down by Swedish jet fighters. The Swedish communist press ridiculed this idea, pointing out that no evidence of any kind had been found, and that Russia had all of Siberia to test her rockets. THE RUSSIAN MILITARY ATTACHÉ IN STOCKHOLM ALSO ASKED THE BRITISH ASSISTANT RAF ATTACHÉ FOR INFORMATION ON THE SUBJECT [emph added]. (Paragraph 5, Enclosure (A)). The main reason against the theory of Russian origin is the lack of any tangible evidence. However, the Swedes may be concealing any such evidence which they may have, even though they stated emphatically that they have no such evidence. The motive of such conduct would be to avoid trouble with Russia.

Case 2. Rockets of British Origin.

The British Assistant RAF Attaché stated that he believed the reported objects were rockets, and has made a financial wager that tangible evidence will be found. HE ALSO STATED THAT HE WOULD LIKE TO 'PLANT' A FALSE CLUE TO WORRY THE RUSSIANS, GIVING A PURPORTED COURSE INDICATING THAT ROCKETS HAD BEEN LAUNCHED FROM DENMARK OR BRITISH-OCCUPIED TERRITORY.[emph added] The US Military Attaché in Stockholm reported that the British are extremely worried about the European situation, and that after a recent visit to his former bomber base in England he found it fully operational, even to the fire-trucks. It is known that the British are worried about our demobilization and would like to keep us armed for the blowup which they expect to occur with the Russians. This would be one way to alert us. It would be possible for the British to launch airborne rockets over the Kattegat, set to cross over Sweden and fall into the Baltic. However, it is doubtful if the British would embark on such an undertaking because of the risk of disclosure either to us or to the Russians. Furthermore, a strong protest could be expected from Sweden. Again there is the fact that the Swedish Defense Staff is peculiarly inactive and unconcerned, while the British are reported by MA Stockholm to be extremely worried about the matter, and to have offered, or are offering, two of their best search radar sets to help the Swedes track down the rockets.

Case 3. Rockets of Swedish Origin....

18 Aug 46 - Tushino air show reveals new Soviet jets and rocket planes. 19 Aug NYTimes: "Russians Unwrap Jet Fighter Plane - 2 Rocket-Propelled Craft Also Thrill Moscow Crowd as Soviet Holds Air Show" - "Moscow, Aug 18 - A jet-propelled fighter and two rocket-propelled fighters, all three of which were built in the Soviet Union, thrilled a crowd of about 50,000 persons at the aviation show staged at Moscow's Tushino Airfield today to mark Soviet Aviation Day. Other shows and demonstrations were held throughout the Soviet Union, and Premier Stalin issued an order of the day calling for 'further successes' in the 'perfection of Soviet aviation.' Among the spectators that watched the aerial display were Premier Stalin, Lazar M. Kaganovitch, Deputy Premier, and other members of the Soviet Politbureau. The Agitators' Notebook, from which material for speeches by party propagandists is drawn, reminded its readers in the latest issue that 'the Soviet Union is the stronghold of democracy against the forces of reaction,' and it declared, 'the aviation of the Soviet Union cannot lag behind that of other countries. On the contrary, in the interests of peace and the security of our people and of other peace-loving nations, Soviet aircraft must fly higher, farther and faster than those of all others.' The Soviet people wish to see their air force the most advanced and 'most powerful in the world,' the article in the Agitators' Notebook concluded. The jet and rocket-propelled planes appeared at the close of the air parade, which included three four-motored bombers....Also displayed at the air show were a new Ilushin 12 transport, two helicopters and a variant of the 'flying wing' which the announcer called a 'duck'..." [MiG-8 Utka] [] [Rocket plane was Lavochkin La-120R, a propeller-driven fighter with small liquid-fuel rocket mounted in tail. It performed a dramatic flight at the show. Jets were second article prototype MiG-9. first and second prototype Yak-15]

19 Aug 46- Yugoslavian fighter a/c shoot down US transport a/c

19 Aug 46 - ("Confidential IVI") War Dept incoming msg Fm: CG PACUSA Tokyo [Douglas MacArthur], Japan To: War Dept for CGAAF. "Considered vital to our operations and situation in the Pacific is latest and best information and evaluation of the Swedish robot weapon incidents which have been continuing over the past several months. Answers to the following specific questions are especially desired: A. Are they rockets or jets, for example V-2 or V-1 type? B. What bases are being used? C. What radius of action is being attained? D. Is their accuracy known and if so, what is it and how was it attained? E: What are technical details of the weapon or weapons being used including sizes and composition of war head? END"

- Gen. Douglas MacArthur

19 Aug 46 - (S) Outgoing War Dept classified msg "To: CG PACUSA Tokyo Japan Reurad A 97381 from GOMGENAIR. Based on reports which are to date insufficient and inconclusive, the following estimates are submitted: A. They appear to be guided missiles with turbo jet or ram jet engines and similar to an enlarged V-1. If the missiles achieve supersonic speed, the wings would have to be smaller and shorter than those on the V-1, probably resembling an A-9 missile.  B. Peenemünde is the most likely source, with the Aland Islands, Porkkala Area of Finland, and Dago Islands, Esthonia [sic], as possible launching sites or observation stations. In general, the launchings are reportedly from the North German coast aimed Northward along the Baltic.  C. A 700 mile radius has been reported. Performance definitely in excess of 100 miles.  D. Accuracy is not known, but long range control of direction and propulsion, long range homing on cities, and probable short range homing have been reported. E. Natural gas has been reportedly used as fuel, although multiple step rocket propulsion also may be in use. Demolition by explosion or burning charge seems to be indicated. V-3 and V-4 have been reported in these tests, although the definite identity of V-3 and V-4 not known. End. ORIGINATOR: AAF / DISTRIBUTION: ID, P&O, R&D"

20 Aug 46 - US demands explanation of Yugoslavian incidents; Yugoslavian govt claims a/c violated airspace

20 Aug 46 - NYTimes (Dateline 19 Aug): "Two United States experts on aerial warfare, General James Doolittle and David Sarnoff, arrived in Stockholm today, apparently independent of each other. The official explanation is that General Doolittle, who is now vice-president of the Shell Oil Company, is inspecting Shell branch offices in Europe and selling oil and gasoline, while General Sarnoff, who is president of the Radio Corporation of America and a former member of General Dwight D. Eisenhower's London staff, is studying the market for radio equipment. The two men arrive here as reports on 'phantom bombs' are more numerous than ever. The Chief of the Swedish Defense Staff, Col. C. R. S. Kempt, said tonight he was extremely interested in asking the two generals advice and, if possible, would place all available reports before them."

David Sarnoff, far left, and General James Doolittle

20 Aug 46 - Truman, on two-week yacht cruise, makes unscheduled diversion to Bermuda, to "fish, golf"

21 Aug 46 - US ultimatum to Yugoslavia threatening to convene UN Security Council unless US grievances addressed

22 Aug 46 - Swedish Morgon-Tidningen report: "The space projectiles over Denmark, according to Nationaltidende, appear to be a reality, and since now military experts have gotten hold of metal parts from one or more projectiles and are carrying on investigations of them, they have entered into collaboration with Swedish military technicians to try to clarify the matter. On the side of the Swedish military it was stated on TT's inquiry [that] nothing was known about the collaboration referred to in the above telegram."

22 Aug 46 - Reuters reports on Soviet development of "new and very powerful rocket -- the German V-4" and that "the Russians were continuing German experiments"

22 Aug 46 - NYTimes, p 2: "Russia Said To Make V-Weapons In Zone" - "Berlin, Aug 21 (Reuter) - Russian and German technicians are manufacturing new V weapons in a number of former German arms plants that are working at the full level of their present capacity, well documented and extremely reliable information reaching Berlin from the Soviet occupation zone said today. Evidence has been provided that the Russians are engaged in the production of heavy armaments, special jet aircraft, rocket fuels for V weapons and U-boat and torpedo components in at least ten special factories in several parts of Russian-occupied Germany. Although the Russians do not at present permit Allied investigation of activity inside the closed guarded arms factories in the Russian occupied areas it has been learned that production of components of advanced V weapons is going ahead in such factories as Siemens and Telefunken in Berlin, Nieder-Sachsenwerke at Wolfsleben and the Klein-Bodungen factory, all of which are subsidiaries of the big Bleich-Roeder [sic] concern. In the Magdeburg plant of the Krupps combine the Russians are producing heavy armament equipment that is being shipped into Soviet Russia, it was stated. Special aircraft fuels for jet engines are being produced in the giant Leuna oil plant near Merseburg in Saxony, but production is believed to be on a comparatively small scale, it was added."

22 Aug 46 - (TS) British Foreign Office memo on radar expert mission to Sweden: "It was necessary, at this point, to decide on a 'cover' for the RAF party and, by good luck, the same open cover was decided in Sweden as that suggested by the Air Ministry, namely that the party had come out at the invitation of the Swedish Air Force to help them with radar and signals equipment for the Vampire." One of the radar experts, Wing Cdr Jennings fm Directorate of Radar, made two visits to Sweden, decided to position radars on Gotland Island. The party was to leave on 22 Aug but was stopped at last minute when Swedish PM Per Albin Hansson blocked it on unspecified "political"' grounds. Mission, and Swedish change of mind, leak to media. (Clarke and Roberts)

22 Aug 46 - (TS) Lt Gen Hoyt Vandenberg, Director, Central Intelligence, memo to President Harry Truman reporting that Central Intelligence Group has concluded that the "weight of evidence" pointed to Peenemünde as origin of the missiles, that US MA Moscow had been told by "key Swedish Air Officer" that radar course-plotting had led to conclusion that Peenemünde was the launch site. CIG speculates that the missiles are extended-range developments of V-1 being aimed for the Gulf of Bothnia for test purposes and do not overfly Swedish territory specifically for intimidation; self destruct by small demolition charge or burning.

23 Aug 46 - Tito admits all aboard a/c destroyed by Yugoslavia on 19 Aug are dead

23 Aug 46 - The Scotsman: "Sweden denies asking for radar experts"

~23 Aug 46 - Swedish FOA produces "identikit" photomontage of German V-2, A-4b, Rheintochter and Wasserfall missiles shown in low-altitude flight

24 Aug 46 - Vandenberg 22 Aug memo passed to Truman by Admiral Leahy

24 Aug 46 - ("Secret PIE") War Dept incoming msg fm USMA Stockholm sgd [Air Attache Maj Gen Alfred A.] Kessler. To: War Dept for MILID. Info: USMA Moscow. "Spook Rockets. Situation developing rapidly with [21 Aug US] ultimatum to Jugoslavia possible stimulus. Theory worthy consideration this time is spook rockets unintentional hoax which developed naturally but which exploited by Defense staff by implication and lack of frankness possibly interest defense budget and to alert west against east. If rockets are hoax rapidity of deteriorations of west-east relations now puts Swedes in dangerous position in which they could be charged with contributing to breakdown in great power relations. Swedes would naturally be anxious to cover tracks officially and avoid possibility of this. Latest developments, all after ultimatums announcement, may support hoax theory. First (See MA Stockholm cable 1080 of 22 Aug) Swedish RAF requested aid this office in obtaining earliest delivery Sweden of 6 SCR 615 [radar] sets for use in tracking rockets. Comment: Action puts Swedish officials in correct position of taking proper action to solve mystery. Second, Swedish RAF announced in press that Bofors for sometime has been developing aircraft rocket. Comment: Sweden has thus made public this experimentation in apparent sincere effort to publish facts which may explain some observations. Third, 23 Aug press contains two rocket incidents complete with immediate full explanations. First was meteorological balloon from Stockholm airfield which exploded and was therefore suspect as rocket. Therefore, unhelpful local observatory identified balloon and airfield explained origin. Second black object was observed to fall and explode. Object found immediately discovered to be magpie that fell on high tension line and was electrocuted with attendant light effects. Comment: Press suddenly realistic and incidents which previously would have remained [un]explained are rationally explained. Swedish official releases to this office believed scrupulously correct and whereas whole truth may have been withheld no misstatement made. Comment: It cannot be said that Sweden officially furnished US Govt with false information with view to alerting her against USSR. However, little done officially to allay public concern or counteract local and world unofficial conclusions that Russian rockets are seen. Swedish unofficial release from highly placed members of the Defense Staff or Air Force have stated flatly that rockets with proved origin in Russian territory have been established over Sweden. See MA Russia Cable MAX 50693 19 Aug. Further, Defense Staff (source 69) unofficially told SSU officer this legation that Sweden has radar tracks proving existence of rockets over Sweden with USSR origin. Comment: Both releases took place prior to ultimatum. Information in MAX 50693 may have been plant or private views, or may have been the facts. Info from source 69 either plant or the facts. Doubtful releases are the facts, as then Swedish official statements of 'no evidence' have been untrue. If unofficial highly placed sources now hedge and decoy rocket scare, believe hoax theory plausible. If they do not, possibly Sweden will try to ride two horses continuing to contribute to deterioration of great power relations to get Russian Bear off Sweden's neck if we accept unofficial releases accepted [sic] but being ready to repudiate unofficial spokesmen and point to clean record if Sweden accused as trouble maker. Hoax theory conceived jointly by this and Naval Attache office. New supporting details being forwarded Naval Attache report 38 S 46. Discrepancy between official denials rocket evidence and unofficial statements (but not proof) that rocket evidence exists points to possibility of hoax. If Swedes have rocket evidence they need not fear accusation as to trouble maker and official denials of evidence are discredit to officialdom without apparent advantage. If Swedes want to tell us about real rockets easiest way would be to use official contacts. Avobe [sic] submitted as worthy of consideration at this time. This office continues to reserve judgment pending receipt of factual evidence, every effort being continued to obtain same.  End."

Kessler bio: "In August 1943 he was announced as commanding officer of the newly activated 13th Combat Bomb Wing which participated in all actions of the 8th Air Force including the first spectacular "shuttle bombing" from England to bomb Regensberg, Germany, and thence on to North Africa, for which the unit was awarded its first Presidential Citation. In February 1944 he was sent to Russia to negotiate, build and operate the base in Russia to be utilized for the England to Russia "shuttle bombing" resulting from the agreement between President Roosevelt and Marshal Stalin at the Teheran Conference. [Operation FRANTIC] As commanding officer and later deputy commanding general of these Russian bases, then designated as Eastern Command, U.S. Strategic Air Forces with headquarters at Poltava, Russia, he commanded the first friendly foreign troops to operate from Russian soil. Upon completion of this project in October 1944, he returned to his command of the 13th Combat Wing in England where he participated in the continued operations of the 8th Air Force in the strategic bombing of Germany and direct air support of our ground forces. In December 1944 he became military and military air attaché, Stockholm, Sweden. Upon return from Sweden in October 1947 he was appointed director of procurement and industrial planning in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Materiel at U.S. Air Force headquarters, Washington, D.C."

24 Aug 46 - US satisfied with Yugoslavian admission on status of a/c

24 Aug 46 - British Embassy Washington cable to Foreign Office, sgd [Ambassador] Lord Inverchapel. Quotes text of 21 Aug NYTimes story about arrival of Doolittle and Sarnoff in Stockholm. First Secretary of Washington embassy is Donald Maclean. (PRO FO 371/56988)

- Donald Maclean

26 Aug 46 - Newsweek article: "Russia: A Warning in the Rocket's Glare?" - "This was the Russian reply to Bikini. Such was the conclusion drawn by many from the continued flight of self-propelled missiles over Sweden..."

26 Aug 46 - US states that all transport a/c flying between Austria and Italy will be armed

26 Aug 46 - British Prime Minister Clement Attlee demands explanation of Swedish blockage of radar mission. Stockholm legation sends long detailed message speculating on motives (Clarke and Roberts)

- Prime Minister Clement Attlee

27 Aug 46 - (TS) State Dept msg to "AMLEGATION, STOCKHOLM. FROM KFSE TO RAVNDAL. Still interested in receiving further information on matters described URTEL 1192, July 29. Please send promised details and any new information on entire subject since that date. Acheson, Acting"

31 Aug 46 - Yugoslavia promises future noninterference with US a/c and issues statement of regret.

31 Aug 46 - UK Liaison Mission Tokyo cables London to inquire about GRs and rumor of crash in England. (see TS Cypher Telegram, 16th Sept 46)

1 Sept 46 - London Daily Telegraph: Several GRs sighted over Macedonia and Salonika on day of Greek vote on the return of King George of the Hellenes.

3 Sept 46 - London Daily Mail - "Daily Mail has sent its most famous war correspondent, Alexander Clifford, to investigate these reports. In his dispatch...he examines all the evidence and concludes that the missiles have been fired by the Russians 'beyond reasonable doubt'. They are, in his opinion, not merely super V-2s but something quite new - maybe developments of the mysterious 'butterfly' [Schmetterling] or the 'waterfall' [Wasserfall] which were two of the more fantastic German projects...that is the eeriness of it all. The Russians, with tightly sealed lips, are experimenting publicly with a machine that leaves no trace whatever and apparently defies several scientific laws....So the Swedes look uneasily into their skies and guess. But all the time the Russians know. The mystery is no mystery to them. And how they must laugh when they read articles like this."

4 Sept 46 - Daily Mail quotes Moscow foreign affairs publication New Times comment on the growing GR press flap in the West:"No one has thought of verifying the truth of the statement"; New Times charges that allegations that Soviets were launching the missiles were part of an organized campaign of slander against the USSR.

6 [?] Sept 46 - London Daily Telegraph publishes 9 July Reutersward GR photo. "MYSTERY 'ROCKET' OVER SWEDEN. - A remarkable photograph, exclusive to THE DAILY TELEGRAPH, of one of the projectiles which have been causing acute speculation during recent weeks. In the large picture the missile is indicated by an arrow, and an enlarged view of it is inset, left. The snapshot was secured by chance by an amateur, Eric Reuterswaerd, in the islands just outside Stockholm. He had photographed the view, and when he developed the negative he saw across it a streak of light which led him to suspect it was one of the 'ghost rockets.' He reported the matter to the Swedish General Staff, who took possession of the negative, which has now come into the hands of THE DAILY TELEGRAPH. Super-sensitive processing, which cannot be reproduced in a newspaper, has revealed both to the Swedish General Staff and other Allied experts the presence of a projectile in the midst of the flame track instead of being in front of it. This supports the theory, mentioned in THE DAILY TELEGRAPH a week ago, that a new method of propulsion is being used in these weapons."

6 Sept 46 - Greek Prime Minister Konstantinos Tsaldaris announces 1 Sept Greek sighting reports, seems to be linking them to intimidation over recent polls.

- Konstantinos Tsaldaris

8 or 9 Sept 46 - Nijmegen, Netherlands. In Nijmegen rumours were spread that around 8 or 9 September or in that week 'again from the east grenades were fired in the vicinity of Nijmegen. Also, projectiles allegedly had fallen down in the vicinity of de Meerwijk and de Ooy..." Sources: Trouw, September 9 1946; Theo Paijmans, Kosmisch Netwerk, ch. 6, p. 131.

9 Sept 46 - RAF Air Intelligence 2(g) report "Investigation of Missile Activity Over Scandanavia," R V Jones - Compares GR affair to prewar rumors about German "car-stopping rays" and other social panic phenomena and concludes "The large bulk of evidence, whilst at first sight impressive, therefore loses weight in the light of our earlier experience of earlier scares, and scares at the present time are natural enough in a country near to Russia...Great importance, therefore, attaches to the results of analysis of the small fragments alleged to have fallen from missiles. If any of them turn out to be substances whose origin cannot be ascribed to innocent activities, they will form the most important piece of evidence we have..." Distributed to over 100 Air Min, Admiralty, War Office and Min of Supply departments, US and European governments. (Clarke and Roberts)

- R. V. Jones

10 Sept 46 - Zwolle, Vriezenveen, Enschede, Oldenzaal, etc [Netherlands]. 20:00, evening "On Tuesday evening September 10, a heavily clouded sky with a southwestern wind, on several places ' strange aerial phenomena' were seen. At the city of Zwolle people saw around 20.00 hours a 'flaming globe, the size of a football' that flew in southwestern direction. The object burst in 'smaller fragments'. At the city of Vriezenveen a 'luminescent object, torpedo shaped' was seen, that came from the southwest and dissappeared in northeastern direction. At the towns of Enschede, Oldenzaal, Hengelo and Almelo 'luminescent projectiles, probably flying bombs' were seen which flew 'with great speed from the eastern in the western directions'. Sometimes mention was only of a single 'light tracer', as in the case of the reportage from Zwolle. As for the sighting at Twente, some days later some newspapers speculated that it was 'a V6... It was a postal rocket that was presumably launched from the American zone in Germany. The projectile reaches a speed of 12,800 kilometers and will be the postal carrier of anno nineteenhundredso and so. It was a test firing of the Americans.'" Sources: Hengelosch Dagblad, Sept. 12, 1946; Trouw, Sept. 13, 1946; Arnhemse Courant, Sept.13, 1946; Volkskrant, Sept. 18, 1946; Paijmans, Kosmisch Netwerk, ch.. 6, p. 131. [via Theo Paijmans]

11 Sept 46 - Forrestal visits retired Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson. Stimson tells him that "the way things had now developed he thought we should not delay in going forward with the manufacture of all the atomic missiles we could make." (Forrestal Diaries)

12 Sept 46 - Commerce Secretary Henry Wallace speech, Madison Square Garden: "Tonight I want to talk about peace - and how to get peace. Never have the common people of all lands so longed for peace. Yet, never in a time of comparative peace have they feared war so much. Up till now peace has been negative and unexciting. War has been positive and exciting. Far too often, hatred and fear, intolerance and deceit have had the upper hand over love and confidence, trust and joy. Far too often, the law of nations has been the law of the jungle; and the constructive spiritual forces of the Lord have bowed to the destructive forces of Satan. During the past year or so, the significance of peace has been increased immeasurably by the atom bomb, guided missiles, and airplanes which, soon will travel as fast as sound. Make no mistake about it - another war would hurt the United States many times as much as the last war. We cannot rest in the assurance that we invented the atom bomb - and therefore that this agent of destruction will work best for us. He who trusts in the atom bomb will sooner or later perish by the atom bomb - or something worse. I say this as one who steadfastly backed preparedness throughout the Thirties. We have no use for namby-pamby pacifism. But we must realize that modern inventions have now made peace the most exciting thing in the world - and we should be willing to pay a just price for peace. If modern war can cost us $400 billion, we should be willing and happy to pay much more for peace. But certainly, the cost of peace is to be measured not in dollars but in the hearts and minds of men. The price of peace - for us and for every nation in the world - is the price of giving up prejudice, hatred, fear and ignorance. I plead for an America vigorously dedicated to peace - just as I plead for opportunities for the next generation throughout the world to enjoy the abundance which now, more than ever before, is the birthright of men. To achieve lasting peace, we must study in detail just how the Russian character was formed - by invasions of Tarters, Mongols, Germans, Poles, Swedes, and French; by the intervention of the British, French and Americans in Russian affairs from 1919 to 1921. Add to all this the tremendous emotional power with Marxism and Leninism gives to the Russian leaders - and then we can realize that we are reckoning with a force which cannot be handled successfully by a "Get tough with Russia" policy. "Getting tough" never bought anything real and lasting - whether for schoolyard bullies or businessmen or world powers. The tougher we get, the tougher the Russians will get. We must not let our Russian policy be guided or influenced by those inside or outside the United States who want war with Russia."

[The speech launches a political crisis for Truman, who had told reporters prior to the speech that he had seen and approved it. Secretary of State Byrnes threatens to resign unless Truman disavows Wallace. Truman is unwilling to do so as Wallace is a symbol of the New Deal, the last holdover from the FDR era, and Truman fears this will lose him liberal support. See McCullough, Truman]

- Henry Wallace

14 Sept 46 [Saturday] - Possible date of "Westerham Incident." "These were the only specimens that were ever claimed to have come from a Russian flying bomb, and the story might then have died. But by this time it had gone round the world and we received a signal from the British mission in Tokyo because General MacArthur had asked them to enquire into the story that a missile had fallen in England during the previous few weeks. The same Air Commodore telephoned me, asking how he should reply to the signal. I told him that, so far as I knew, nothing like a missile had fallen in England since the end of the war, and to this he replied, 'Well, it might tie up with the Westerham incident.' When I asked him what Westerham incident, he said, 'Good God, I was supposed not to telly you about that.' And then, of course, he had to tell me. It transpired that on the previous Saturday one of my technical officers had received a telephone call from a man who said that his name was Gunyon, and that one of these newfangled contraptions had fallen out of the sky into one of his fields, and that he thought that it was the Air Ministry's business to come and remove it. The technical officer involved happened to be one of the believers and he saw a chance of convincing his Director that the Russian flying bomb really existed. He therefore asked farmer Gunyon how to find his farm, and was told that if one drove from Croydon to Westerham one should look out for a public house called 'The White Dog' and drive up the lane beside it, and that the farm was at the end of the lane. The technical intelligence resources of the Air Ministry were immediately mobilized and the two staff cars full of officers set off to find farmer Gunyon. When they got into the right area, they were disappointed to find no public house of the right name. But, being good Intelligence officers, they realized the name may have been misheard over the telephone. They therefore inquired whether there were any public houses with similar names, and they were soon directed to one called 'The White Hart.' They were beginning, in any event, to need a drink, and they asked the publican whether he knew where farmer Gunyon lived...." R V Jones, "The Natural Philosophy of Flying Saucers," Appendix V, Condon Report

19 Sept 46 - Top Secret Cypher Telegram - IMPORTANT From: CABINET OFFICES TO: U.K. LIAISON MISSION TOKYO For Air Advisor Reference your No. AA 50 of 31st August 1946

20 Sept 46 - Truman asks for Wallace's resignation.

20 Sept 46 - US Army Commander Gen Dwight Eisenhower departs for Europe on Queen Mary to confer with military leaders. Arrives Southampton on 27th

- Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower (center)

25 Sept 46 - report of ball of fire plunging out of sky over Ostend, Belgium, trailing dense cloud of smoke. Almost rams house. (Gross) [see 15 Oct 46]

22-29 Sept 46 - Sixth International Congress for Applied Mechanics, Paris - Frank Malina and Martin Summerfield present paper "The Problem of Escape from the Earth by Rocket" (see 16 Aug 46) "In general, two methods of attaining the necessary high velocities [to achieve escape velocity] have been considered: the gun and the rocket. Previous investigations have conclusively demonstrated, on theoretical grounds, that the maximum velocity that can be imparted to a projectile using a gun of unlimited length and propelled by the most energetic chemical propellants possible is insufficient to enable it to escape from the earth. The velocity attainable by a rocket, on the other hand, approaches that required for escape provided the mass ratio, i.e., the ratio of the contained propellant weight to the gross weight of the rocket, is made sufficiently high. Furthermore, by means of multiple-step rockets, the final velocity can be increased even more. On the basis of data on the exhaust velocity obtainable with different propellants, as presented below, the conditions required for escape have been calculated. It is concluded that it is now within engineering feasibility to propel a body with the required velocity."

30 Sept 46 - NYTimes: "[Brig Gen] Sarnoff told of visiting Sweden recently and said he is convinced that the 'ghost bombs' are no myth but real missiles."

Sept 46 - US Navy approves development of SSM-N-2 Triton strategic surface-to-surface supersonic cruise missile project (JHUAPL)


3 Oct 46 - Moscow New Times blasts rumors about production of "mysterious kinds of weapons" supposedly being manufactured in Soviet zone of Germany. Aug 22 Reuters story was target of wrath of New Times article. Charged that source of information in Reuters story were "mythical representatives of the Socialist Unity Party."

(The Socialist Unity Party of Germany was founded 21st April 1946 by a forced unification of the Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands or KPD) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands or SPD). Initially this decision was applied to the whole of occupied Germany. The union was refused consistently in the three western occupation zones, where both parties remained independent. The union of the parties was thus only effective in the Soviet zone. The Socialist Unity Party of Germany was modelled after the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In the year 1946, the unification was announced in the Soviet occupation zone with an emblem of a handshake.